Vient de paraître: Andrée Michel, Féminisme et antimilitarisme

Andrée Michel, Féminisme et antimilitarisme. Avant-propos de Jules Falquet, Paris, Editions iXe, 2012.

Mot de l’éditrice:

Pionnière des études sur le rôle et la place des femmes dans la famille et dans la société, féministe de la première heure, Andrée Michel est l’une des rares, en France, à travailler sur l’articulation du pouvoir d’État avec le puissant lobby de l’armement. Elle analyse la « culture de guerre » qui en découle en prenant en compte les dimensions de la classe et du sexe, ce qui l’amène à qualifier l’industrie de l’armement de « formation sociale aggravée du patriarcat ». Un modèle qui a pour conséquences inéluctables une extension des conflits armés et une aggravation des pauvretés qui frappent les hommes comme les femmes mais stigmatisent durablement les secondes. Les viols de guerre et la prostitution au service des armées ne sont que les exemples les plus connus, les plus frappants, des violences exercées à leur encontre.

Composé en deux parties – « la guerre contre les femmes » et « résistances féministes » – le recueil Féminisme et Antimilitarisme rassemble, à côté d’articles de fond publiés dès les années 1980, les textes inédits d’interventions dans des colloques internationaux, notamment en Colombie, à l’invitation d’organisations féministes.

Gender, Sex and the Postnational Defense – Militarism and Peacekeeping

KRONSELL Anika, Gender, Sex and the Postnational Defense, Militarism and Peacekeeping, Oxford University Press, 2012.

Mot de l’éditeur : 

– Puts UN SCR 1325 into a larger conversation about human security, the post-national defense and militaries doing peacekeeping activities

– Based on extensive case study material, much of which has never been published in English

– Shows that increasing gender parity in the military is a more achievable task than increasing women’s participation

Scholars have argued that the end of the Cold War and the War on Terror have radically changed the context of war and defense, diminished the role of nation-states in favor of multi-lateral defense activities, and placed a new focus on human security. In addition to the traditional act of war-making, peacekeeping and nation-building have emerged as important defense strategies among wealthy, liberal-democratic nations. Per UN Security Council Resolution 1325, adopted in 2000, all member nations must consider the needs of women and girls during repatriation, resettlement, and post-conflict reconstruction efforts. Kronsell’s book looks at the way that a post-national defense influenced by SC 1325 and focused on human security affects gender relations in militaries. Interestingly, despite the successful implementation of gender mainstreaming in training, the number of women involved in military peacekeeping remains low. Contradicting much of the gender mainstreaming literature, Kronsell shows that increasing gender parity in the military is a more achievable task than increasing women’s participation.

Employing a feminist constructivist institutional approach, her book questions whether <« feminism> » must always be equated with peace and anti-militarism, if military violence committed with the purpose of enhancing human security can be performed according to a feminist ethics, and if military institutions can ever be gender neutral. Kronsell builds her theoretical argument on a case study of Sweden and the E.U.

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Chapters :

Introduction
Chapter One: Mothers, Soldiers and Nation in the ‘Neutral’ Defense
Chapter Two: Gender, Sexuality and Institutions of Hegemonic Masculinity
Chapter Three: The Post-National Defense and the Cosmopolitan Military
Chapter Four: Post-national Peacekeeping and the Construction of Sex and Gender
Chapter Five: Defense and Military Governance in the EU: A cosmopolitan military in the making?
Chapter Six: Conclusions

Enlisting Masculinity: The Construction of Gender in U.S. Military Recruiting Advertising During the All-Volunteer Force

BROWN Melissa T., Enlisting Masculinity: The Construction of Gender in U.S. Military Recruiting Advertising During the All-Volunteer Force, Oxford University Press, 2012.

Mot de l’éditeur :

– First published study to explore the content of volunteer-force recruitment advertising

– Analyzes more than 300 print advertisements published between the early 1970s and 2007

Enlisting Masculinity explores how the U.S. military branches have deployed gender and, in particular, ideas about masculinity to sell military service to potential recruits. Military service has strong historical ties to masculinity, but conscription ended during a period when masculinity was widely perceived to be in crisis and women’s roles were expanding. The central question the book asks is whether, in the era of the all-volunteer force, masculinity is the underlying basis of military recruiting appeals and, if so, in what forms? It also asks how women fit into the gendering of service. Based on an analysis of more than 300 print advertisements published between the early 1970s and 2007, as well as television commercials, recruiting websites, and media coverage of recruiting, the book argues that masculinity is still a foundation of the appeals, but each branch deploys various constructions of masculinity that serve its particular personnel needs and culture, with conventional martial masculinity being only one among them. While the Marines rely almost exclusively on a traditional, warrior form of masculinity, the Army, Navy, and Air Force draw on various strands of masculinity that are in circulation in the wider culture. The inclusion of a few token women in recruiting advertisements has become routine, but the representations of service make it clear that men are the primary audience and combat is their exclusive domain. Although most Americans believe they can ignore the military in the era of the all-volunteer force, when it comes to popular culture and ideas about gender, the military is not a thing apart from society, and military recruiting materials are implicated in our broader conceptions of masculinity and of military service.

Sans titre-copie-4Chapters:

Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Concepts and Context: Masculinity, Citizenship, and the Creation of the AVF
Chapter 3: The Army
Chapter 4: The Navy
Chapter 5: The Marine Corps
Chapter 6: The Air Force
Chapter 7: Recruiting a Volunteer Force in Wartime
Chapter 8: Conclusion