CFP : Women’s Organizations and Female Activists in the Aftermath of the First World War

Date limite : 15 décembre 2011

Call for papers.
Women’s Organisations and Female Activists in the Aftermath of the First World War:
Moving Across Borders.
An interdisciplinary, international conference to be held at Hamline University, St Paul, Minnesota, USA
Memorial Day Weekend: 26th to 28th May 2012

Recent developments in the social and cultural history of modern warfare have done much to shed new light on the experience of the First World War, and in particular how that experience was communicated in popular and high culture, and in acts of remembrance and commemoration after 1918. The post-war period (ca 1918-1923) is distinctive, both within individual nations and as a point of international comparison. It is characterised by the often troubled transition from a wartime to a peacetime society, continued conflicts over the repatriation of refugees and POWs; revolutionary and counter- revolutionary violence in parts of central Europe; and new ethnic and national conflicts arising from the collapse of the former Russian, German, Austro-Hungarian, and Ottoman empires, and the cultural anxieties that surrounded these events. Within this context, the role of organised women’s movements and female activists in the post-war period takes on a new importance.
The aim of this conference is to explore major comparative themes such as citizenship, suffrage, nationalism, and women’s desire to respond to extremes of need in the post-war era (dislocation, internment, violence and hunger) from a national, international and transnational perspective. It will examine the work of organisations and individuals able to move across international borders, such as the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) or the journalist Eleanor Franklin Egan, who reported on social conditions throughout post-war Europe. The role of such women and organisations in bringing about reconciliation and facilitating cooperation between former enemy nations (cultural demobilisation, ‘the dismantlement of the mindsets and values of wartime’—John Horne) will also be examined, as will the role of nationalist women’s organisations in perpetuating discourses of war and in facilitating the rise of new forms of ethno-nationalism and racial intolerance (‘cultural remobilisation’) during the period 1918-1923. This conference is the third in a series. The first conference, The Gentler Sex: Responses of the Women’s Movement to the First World War, 1914-1919, London, held in 2005, was followed in 2008 with Aftermaths of War: Women’s Movements and Female Activists 1918-1923, Leeds. Publications arising from the earlier conferences include special issues of Minerva: Journal of Women and War and two edited volumes: Fell, A.S. and Sharp, I.E. (eds) (2007) The Women’s Movement in Wartime. International Perspectives 1914-1919. Palgrave Macmillan and Sharp, I.E and Stibbe, M (eds) (2011) Aftermaths of War: Women’s Movements and Female Activists, 1918-1923 (Brill).
The Hamline Conference builds on this work and is supported by a network grant from the UK-based Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC). It will be followed by a fourth international conference in Budapest, Hungary with an emphasis on Eastern and Central Europe. Two special issues of a peer-reviewed journal and a volume of comparative essays are planned for 2014.
Attendees will be invited to visit sites and events of interest, including Victory Memorial Parkway in Minneapolis (a boulevard and collection of monuments dedicated in 1921 to the servicemen and nurses of Hennepin County who died in the First World War) and the Memorial Day Program at Fort Snelling National Cemetery.

Confirmed speakers include:

Keynote speaker: Susan R. Grayzel, Professor of History and Interim Director of the Sarah Isom Center for Women and Gender Studies, University of Missisippi. Author of Women’s Identities at War: Gender, Motherhood, and Politics in Britain and France during the First World War (University of North Carolina Press, 1999), which won the British Council Prize from the North American Conference on British Studies in 2000, and Women and the First World War (Longman, 2002), a global history. She has two forthcoming books: At Home and Under Fire: Air Raids and Culture in Britain from the Great War to the Blitz. (Cambridge) and The First World War: A Brief History with Documents (Bedford St. Martins) Dr Erica Kuhlmann, Director Women’s Studies Program, Idaho State University, author of Of Little Comfort: War Widows, Fallen Soldiers and the Remaking of the Nation after the Great War New York University Press (forthcoming 2012); Reconstructing Patriarchy after the Great War. Women, Gender and Postwar Reconciliation, Palgrave Macmillan 2008; Petticoats and White Feathers: Gender Conformity, Race, the Progressive Peace Movement, and the Debate over War, 1895-1919, Greenwood Press 1997 and co-editor (with Kimberley Jensen) of Women and Transnational Activism in Historical Perspective Dordrecht, Republic of Letters, 2010
Dr Kimberley Jensen, History and Gender Studies Program, Western Oregon, Co-editor (with Erica Kuhlman) of Women and Transnational Activism in Historical Perspective Dordrecht, Republic of Letters, 2010 and author of Mobilizing Minerva: American Women in the First World War University of Illinois Press 2008
Professor Matthew Stibbe, author of Germany 1914-33: Politics, Society and Culture Longman 2010; British Civilian Internees in Germany: The Ruhleben Camp Manchester University Press 1914-1918 and Co-editor (with Ingrid Sharp) Aftermaths of War: Women’s Movements and Female Activists, 1918-1923 Brill, 2011
Dr Judit Acsády (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest); Professor Gabriella Hauch (University of Linz, Austria); Ms Ingrid Sharp (Leeds, UK); Professor Olga Shyrnova (Ivanonvo State University, Russia); Dr David Hudson (Hamline University, US); Dr Nikolai Vukov (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia).
Proposals for papers and/or panels that deal with the work of women’s organisations or female activists during the period under investigation are invited, with particular interest in the following areas:
• cultural demobilisation and remobilisation;
• transnational organisations and activities, transcending the nation state;
• peace-building and reconstruction: a discourse of human rights
• on-going campaigns for suffrage and women’s organisations post-suffrage;
• revolutionary and counter-revolutionary violence;
• dislocation, disability, internment, social instability and poverty;
• cultural reflections of post-war society in art, literature and film (NB: these may appear at a later date than the period under investigation)

Contributions are welcome from any field or discipline, including literary and cultural studies, sociology and social anthropology, women’s and gender studies, peace and war studies, as well as history itself.
Please send abstracts (500 words) to Ms Ingrid Sharp i.e.sharp@leeds.ac.uk and Dr David Hudson, dhudson@gw.hamline.edu by December 15.

Conscripted Realities: Military and Society in Israel

Conscripted Realities – Program

October 11 – 13, 2011, Amsterdam

During three days of discussions, exhibitions and film screenings, gate48 would like to introduce innovative perspectives on the militarization of Israeli society and culture. Militarism is part of everyday life in Israel, closely linked to the ongoing reality of armed conflict and occupation. As a result, militaristic approaches to the conflict have become dominant, while feminist critiques and other alternative voices have been ignored or dismissed. Conscripted Realities aims to bring forth these voices in order to examine how the military and civil society interact in the formation of the national subject.

Academics and activists from Israel will discuss the topic from various angles, including the economic aspects of militarization, the militarization of education and media, and the effects of militarization on gendered and ethnic minorities in their struggles for equality. The symposium is accompanied by a digital exhibition “Making Militarism Visible”, curated by the Israeli feminist organization “New Profile”. The exhibition reveals the subtle but strong influence of militarism on Israeli popular culture.

The symposium also marks the opening of the exhibition “Breaking the Silence: Video Testimonies of Israeli Soldiers”, created by Breaking the Silence* and presented at the Melkweg gallery. Conscripted Realities: Military and Society in Israel endeavors to contextualize this powerful exhibition within a broader socio-cultural perspective.

*Breaking the Silence is an organization of Israeli ex-military combatants who seek to reveal the reality of everyday life in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. The exhibition at the Melkweg gallery is co-organized by gate48.

Tuesday, October 11

Opening event: CREA – Theaterzaal, Turfdraagsterpad 17

20:00-20.15  Opening Remarks

Dr. Erella Grassiani, VU University Amsterdam, gate48

20.15-22.00  Noam Hayut, co-founder of Breaking the Silence

Breaking the Silence: Testimonies of Soldiers from the Israeli Occupation

Discussant: Dr. Orna Sasson-Levy, Chair of the department of Sociology and Anthropology, Bar-Ilan University

Wednesday, October 12

Symposium: University of Amsterdam – VOC-zaal (Bushuis/OIH), Kloveniersburgwal 48

 9:00 – 9:30 Gathering and coffee

Screening of the New profile exhibition “Making Militarism Visible””; ongoing throughout the day.

 9:30 – 9:45  Opening Remarks

Noa Roei, University of Amsterdam, gate48

 9:45 – 11:15 Session I: The Making of Military Minds: Militarism in Education and Media

Abir Kopty, activist, media analyst and consultant

Militarism, Patriarchy and elitism in Israeli media

 Rela Mazali, author and independent scholar, co-founder of the New Profile movement to demilitarize Israel, co-founder of the arms control project “Gun Free Kitchen Tables”

Disappearing Choice or How I Was Educated to Believe There Wasn’t Any

 Chair and discussant: Robin Celikates, Associate Professor of Political and Social Philosophy, University of Amsterdam

 11:15 – 11:30  Coffee break

 11:30 – 13:00  Session II: Equal Duties, Equal Rights? Gender Politics in a Militarized Society

 Dr. Orna Sasson-Levy, Chair of the department of Sociology and Anthropology, Bar-Ilan University

Militarism from a Gendered Perspective: The Meaning of Military Service in Israeli Women’s Life Course

 Inna Michaeli, Coalition of Women for Peace

From “No Pride in the Occupation” to the Current “Pinkwashing” Debate: LGBT Politics and Militarism in Israel

 Chair and discussant: Aylin Kuryel, PhD candidate at the Amsterdam School for Cultural Analysis, University of Amsterdam

 13:00 – 14:00  Lunch

 14:00 – 15:30  Session III: The Security Business: Soldiers without Uniforms

 Galit Gelbort, PhD researcher and writer, Israel

Evolutions of Israeli Control of the Palestinian Population: From Checkpoint to the New Privatized Crossing

 Dr. Erella Grassiani, VU University Amsterdam, gate48

How to use Occupation Skills for a Profit: Israeli Combatant Experience as a Brand

 Chair and discussant: Rela Mazali, author and independent scholar

 15:30 – 16:00  Roundtable and Concluding remarks

Melkweg – Mediaroom, Lijnbaansgracht 234a

17:00  Drinks and the opening of the exhibition:

Breaking the Silence: Video Testimonies of Israeli Soldiers

The exhibition will be on display between October 13th and November 13th.

Thursday, October 13

Humanity House, Prinsegracht 8, Den Haag

17:00  Breaking the Silence: Testimonies of Soldiers from the Israeli Occupation

Discussion with Noam Hayut, co-founder of Breaking the Silence

Final Event: Mezrab, Domselaerstraat 120, Amsterdam

The Political Consequences of Militarization

 19:30  Doors open, food and drinks available

 20:30 Introduction: Itamar Shachar, gate48

 20:40 Film screening: “A Million Bullets in October”

(Israel 2007, 47 min., Hebrew with English subtitles)

Director: Moish Goldberg

This documentary film describes how the Israeli public was convinced with the outbreak of the second Intifada in October 2000 that ‘there is no partner for negotiation on the Palestinian side’, and therefore a military assault on the Palestinians is unavoidable. Testimonies of Israeli politicians, journalists and ex-military officers reveal how Israeli consciousness was shaped through disinformation spread by the military and by uncritical journalists, while cabinet members allowed the army to lead the way and dictate policy.

21:30 Discussion with Abir Kopty, activist, media analyst and consultant

Moderator: Pejman Jafari, PhD candidate at the department of political science, University of Amsterdam, board member of Mezrab

Entre histoires et mémoires : la guerre au musée. Approches comparées

Plus d’informations ici

Haut du formulaire

Bas du formulaire

Appel à contribution avant le jeudi 10 novembre 2011

Résumé

Du livre au cinéma, du théâtre aux manuels scolaires, sans oublier les arts plastiques, la danse, le théâtre, la chanson, il existe de très nombreux supports de transmission, de mémorisation, de mémorialisation et d’oubli des faits de guerre, de leurs effets et de leurs causes plus ou moins lointaines. À travers ce colloque, largement ouvert aux chercheurs des sciences humaines et sociales (doctorants compris), il s’agit d’analyser et de confronter les narrations et les mises en scènes de la guerre au XXe siècle dans différents types d’espaces muséaux tant français qu’étrangers. Dans la lignée des colloques du CRID 14-18, une place prédominante est réservée au traitement comparatiste de la Première Guerre mondiale dans les espaces muséaux français et étrangers. Toutefois, une place importante sera également attribuée à la comparaison nationale et internationale diachronique (guerres civiles, guerre d’Espagne, Deuxième Guerre mondiale, conflits de décolonisation…).

Présentation

Le colloque est organisé par le Collectif de Recherche International et de Débat sur la Guerre de 1914-1918 (CRID 14-18) et le programme ANR-POP « Les Présents des Passés » (ANR-08-BLAN-0071-01-POP), en partenariat avec le Conseil général de l’Aisne, le Centre de Recherches Interdisciplinaires en Sciences humaines Et Sociales (EA 4424 C.R.I.S.E.S.) de l’Université Paul Valéry-Montpellier III et le Centre de la Méditerranée Moderne et Contemporaine (CMMC) de l’Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis.

Dans le cadre de ce colloque, le CRID 14-18 et l’ANR-POP proposent de porter l’attention sur les différents types d’espaces muséaux – entendus ici au sens le plus large de lieux d’expositions ouverts au public (musées, mémoriaux, historiaux, centres d’interprétation, etc.) – traitant des conflits contemporains par des expositions permanentes (de relativement longue durée) ou temporaires.

Il s’agira d’éviter l’approche monographique et surtout descriptive, et de faire au contraire resurgir des questionnements problématisés et comparatistes (sociologie des entrepreneurs, aménagement mémoriel du territoire, comparaison de morceaux critiques dans plusieurs discours d’exposition…). Pour ce faire, les musées seront analysés dans leur complexité, à la fois comme des objets politiques, sociaux, culturels, économiques… Toute monographie strictement descriptive sera donc écartée.

A contrario, une attention toute particulière sera portée à la démarche comparative, qu’elle consiste par exemple en une confrontation de différents espaces muséaux ou bien en la mise en regard de différentes strates muséographiques au sein d’un même ensemble. Ainsi comprises et encadrées, les analyses muséales seront conçues comme autant d’études de cas étayant l’argumentation critique du communicant et pouvant s’inscrire dans les problématiques listées ci-dessous :

Dimensions territoriales

Approche sociopolitique des entrepreneurs muséaux

Choix, modèles et contraintes scénographiques

Ligne éditoriale et choix narratifs

Projet politico-philosophique (objectifs, mises en leçon des passés…)

Les acteurs non-étatiques dans les conflits armés

Revue Aspects, n° 4, décembre 2010

SOMMAIRE

I. BOULEVERSEMENTS CATÉGORIELS

Julie Saada : Les « combattants illégaux » : ennemis du genre humain ? Contre-terrorisme en démocratie et malléabilité du droit

Marie Goupy : La notion de « criminalisation » de l’ennemi dans la Théorie du partisan de Carl Schmitt

Laurent Sermet : La notion de « conflit armé interne » : problématique autour de l’objet et des sujets

II. ACTEURS INÉDITS

Rut Diamint : Conflits armés et États défaillants

Edgardo Manero : De la perception de la guerre en temps linéaire au relativisme stratégique. La conséquence logique d’un regard comparatif

Marguerite Rollinde : Genre et conflit. Femmes victimes, femmes actrices

III. VERS DE NOUVELLES RESPONSABILITÉS

Sabrina Meddour : Le droit international face au recrutement d’enfants dans les conflits armés

Carolina Vergel Tovar : Voir ou ne pas voir la guerre : le cas colombien

Delphine Loupsans : La place des ONG dans la mécanique décisionnelle préparant et orientant l’utilisation de la force armée en RDC et au Tchad-RCA

CFP : Critical Gender Studies on Masculinities and Relationality

Uppsala University
Centre for Gender Research
January 18-20 2012

A SECOND CALL FOR PAPERS

In recent years critical gender studies have raised crucial issues concerning masculinities, and power. Research has repeatedly pointed out that masculinities can be understood in terms of, for example, positions, processes, and performances, and that masculinities are multiple across cultures, geographical space, and historical time. The intersections of masculinities with other dimensions of power have also been fruitfully explored and critiqued by scholars. Among masculinity studies scholars, relationality as a critical concept for understanding masculinity as social construction has been used variously. So far, the field has generated certain understandings of relationality – for example that masculinity is that which femininity is not, or that hegemonic masculinity is constructed in relation to nonhegemonic genders – but beyond emphasizing difference as central to constructions of (certain) masculinities, this usage tells us little about precisely how masculinities operate relationally as ideas and practices.

This conference wants to address questions about the usefulness and limitations of relationality for understanding masculinity or masculinities. It focuses particularly on masculinities and cultural representations and masculinities and social practice, but these need not be seen as mutually exclusive areas. We invite presentations that address masculinities and relation(s)/relationality from a critical gender perspective. Exactly which relations produce, construct, or maintain masculinities and certain gendered systems of power? How does relational masculinity/masculine relationality operate across historical times in practices in the work place, in policy making, in familial practices, in cultural representations, in fictional and non-fictional narratives? How does relationality as a concept contribute to theorizing masculinities?

We invite contributions from scholars in the humanities and social sciences, as well as from any other field where masculinity is researched from a critical gender perspective. Confirmed speakers are Stella Bruzzi, Chris Beasley, Michael Kimmel, James Messerschmidt, and Keith Pringle.

500 word abstracts should be sent to Anneli Häyrén Weinestål at anneli.hayren@gender.uu.se no later than September 1 2011.

In all other matters concerning the conference, please contact Cecilia Brenner at cecilia.brenner@gender.uu.se.

The conference website is available at www.gender.uu.se/konferenser/irtw — more information will appear here in the fall.

Nawal El Saadawi, « La situation des femmes après le printemps arabe en Egypte »

Conférence de Nawal El Saadawi, pionnière du féminisme en Egypte et auteure de talent, Dr Honoris Causa de l’ULB et de la VUB.
Le Mercredi 21 septembre de 12 h 30 à 14 heures,

17 avenue Roosevelt – 1000 Bruxelles
(CIERL).

Par ailleurs, l’ULB et la VUB accorderont conjointement, le mercredi 28 novembre, les insignes de Docteur Honoris Causa à Nawal El Saadawi. Cette femme égyptienne, médecin et psychiatre, s’est distinguée dans son pays depuis près d’un demi-siècle, en défense de la cause des femmes, de la liberté d’incroyance et en faveur d’équilibres économiques moins injustes. Un combat et des positions qu’elle assume pleinement, malgré les représailles.

Enfin, à lire sur Esprit Libre, le magazine de l’ULB, un article d’Anne Morelli, historienne, « Nawal El Saadawi Une égyptienne LIBRE »

Gendered Memories of War and Political Violence

Gender and Women’s Studies Forum

Sabancı University

Workshop organized in the framework of the Central European University – Sabancı University Joint Academic Initiative by AyÅŸe Gül Altınay and Andrea PetÃ

Opening Remarks by Cynthia Enloe

The 20th century has been a century of wars, genocides, and other forms of political violence. It has also been a century of feminist struggle and theorizing globally. At the peak of what is sometimes called the « memory boom, » this conference seeks to explore the different ways in which wars, genocides, and other forms of political violence are remembered through a gender lens.

Central questions include (but are not limited to):

  • How have wars, genocides and other forms of political violence been narrated and represented by men and women?
  • How do women remember and narrate sexual violence in war?
  • How do (written, oral or visual) testimonies challenge or reinforce the hegemonic accounts of wars and genocides?
  • How are wars memorialized and gendered through monuments, museums, and other memory sites?
  • What is the impact of the ethnicization/racialization of violence on the making of gendered memories?
  • How is the relationship between the « personal » and the « public/national/political » (re)conceptualized in popular culture, film, literature, and (auto)biographical texts dealing with war, genocide, and other forms of political violence?
  • How are « humanitarian interventions, » post-conflict processes, and transitional justice gendered?
  • How do women’s, feminist, and LGBTQ movements contribute to critical memory work on wars?
  • What kind of impact has feminist scholarship had on war and
    militarism studies, genocide studies, and memory studies?
  • What new concepts or theoretical frameworks (queer? postcolonial? critical race studies?) promise new openings in feminist analyses of memory work on wars and genocides?

Applications

The working language of the conference will be English. Scholars of all levels and from all disciplines are encouraged to apply. Priority will be given to papers that deal with Europe (in the largest sense of the term) or Europe’s connection to the discussed context, but other papers will also be considered.

Please submit an abstract (max. 500 words) outlining the relevance and novelty of your contribution, together with a 200 words resumé.

Presenters will be required to submit their presentation in writing prior to the workshop. With the participation of Cynthia Enloe and other prominent scholars from the field as discussants, we are hoping for close engagement and critical debate during the workshop. Presenters will be encouraged to submit their revised papers for the special issue of the /European Journal of Women’s Studies/ on the same topic (to be edited by Altınay and Petö).

There are limited funds for those participants who do not have other sources of funding to attend the workshop. When submitting your abstract, please indicate your need for any financial assistance. There are no registration fees. Lunch, tea and coffee will be provided for all participants.

The application deadline is 16 December 2011

To submit your paper and for more information: genderconf@sabanciuniv.edu

Workshop website: http://myweb.sabanciuniv.edu/genderconf/

Call-for-Papers-01

 

Military Sexual Trauma in Men : A Review of Reported Rates

Military sexual trauma (MST) has historically been associated with female service members, but it is also experienced by male service members. This article reviews reported prevalence and incidence rates of men’s MST in 29 studies. Sources for these studies included the Department of Defense, the U.S. military service academies, and the Department of Veterans Affairs. There is significant variability in reported rates of men’s MST. Averaging across studies covering the past 30 years, we found that MST is reported by approximately 0.09% of male service members each year, with a range of 0.02% to 6%. MST is reported by 1.1% of male service members over the course of their military careers, with a range of 0.03% to 12.4%. Determining prevalence and incidence rates for both men’s and women’s MST is fraught with limitations, including (a) cross-study variations in sample, method, definitions, and assessment and (b) barriers to reporting MST. Each of these limitations is reviewed with an eye toward identifying male-specific issues.

Argentina military approve first gay officers marriage; second couple waiting

A lire sur MercoPress

An Argentine Lieutenant colonel and an Army captain will become the first gay military couple to marry since Argentina legalized such unions last year.

In 2009, Argentina ended its ban on gay and bisexual troops serving openly. The following year, the country became the first in Latin America and tenth worldwide to allow gay and lesbian couples to marry.

According to the military publication Tiempo Militar, the couple, whose names and gender were not disclosed, will marry in the city of Buenos Aires, and the military has approved the union, meaning the couple can marry in full uniform if so they wish.

The paper also reported that a second couple has made a similar request. The three services commanders and the Minister of Defence decided on the matter.

Cesar Cigliutti of the gay rights group Comunidad Homosexual Argentina (CHA) told Clarin that the union is “important and adds much needed visibility to gays, lesbians and bisexuals serving in the armed forces, an area that has traditionally been strongly conservative.”

“We are confident that requests for marriage will continue to grow and join the more than 2,600 same-sex couples already married in Argentina,” he added.

Does Conflict Empower Women? By Mushtaq Ul haq Ahmad Sikander

A lire sur CounterCurrents

Traduction ici.

05 September, 2011
Countercurrents.org

“Necessity is the mother of Invention” is a well proven fact; similar has been the case with women of Kashmir. The armed conflict has imposed on them new alien roles, which they have readily accepted and are fulfilling the responsibilities of the same. During the initial phase of armed struggle, the women rubbed shoulders with men, and in many cases proved more effective than men, especially when the army or police would pick up the youth. The women of the locality would stage protests outside the army camps and pickets which would force the army to release the youth. The women would even resist the illegal detention of any youth, and would protest alongwith men against the atrocities of the State and army.

When the things turned ugly, and women found themselves in the line of fire, they retreated a bit from the active protests as the killings, rapes, abductions, torture and illegal detentions were threatening to disrupt the whole Social and Family life, which would have ultimately led to anarchy, but women took charge of their lives and responsibility of their families; they were overburdened by the challenges of extended responsibilities and roles but they didn’t panic and only due to their perseverance and steadfastness, a Social catastrophe was avoided. In the families whose lone bread earners were killed or disappeared, women began to shoulder the economic responsibilities, to educate their children and drive the cart of daily life.

Illiterate women, whose sons, spouses, brothers or fathers were serving jail sentences in different parts of Kashmir and India, began to follow their legal suits, contacted lawyers, got to learn about the draconian laws under which their beloved ones were imprisoned, got exposed to the legal clauses and knew which judges were hearing their cases. They began to visit various jails, torture and detention centers and traveled to alien places, which provided them diverse exposure, and they are well aware of the location of prisons, courts and cheap hotels to stay during which the trail was going on. Thus their personal tragedies made them emerge as empowered women, who control the lives of their kith and kin, despite the impediments of education, gender and birth.

Thousands of men have been killed in staged, fake encounters and in custody by the army and Police too. Then there are men, who have been picked by the army or police and since then none has heard about them, army and police claims they have run away from the custody, whereas their families allege that the disappeared souls are either in the custody of the agencies that picked them or have been killed who are occupying the unknown graves. According to the unofficial sources more than ten thousand persons are disappeared in Kashmir, and there are more than three thousand half widows(Half Widows are those women whose husbands have disappeared in the custody and there is no consensus among the scholars of different schools of thought about the stipulated time after which they can be pronounced as Widows and have the right to remarry). The disappearance is a brutal continuous source of agony for the family and those belonging to the victim as they always remain in a dilemma about the status of the victim, neither the law is able to declare him dead nor the dear ones are ready to accept him as dead, as the victim has vanished in thin air.

To follow the cases of these disappeared souls, mothers of the disappeared sons got together under the chairmanship of Parveena Ahangar, whose own son Javed Ahmad Ahangar is missing since 1990s from the army’s custody to form the Association of the Parents of Disappeared Persons (APDP) in 1994. Later on half widows too joined APDP. Since 1994 till date they have been fighting a continuous legal battle for Justice demanding the whereabouts of their beloved ones, which till now has yielded nothing, but Parveena a middle aged, illiterate, common woman has reiterated never to surrender or give up, and is inspiring others to follow her suit. On the 10th of every month, members of APDP stage a peaceful silent protest in the Pratap Park, located in the heart of Srinagar. Parveena is regularly invited to attend different seminars and conferences in different parts of the world, where she shares her agony and agony of thousands others.

The stalwarts of armed insurgency, most of whom either have been killed or have joined Pro-Freedom politics have been grossly negligent towards building institutions for the victims of conflict, instead the money which was contributed and channeled through them to take care of the victims of the conflict was siphoned and swindled off by the majority of them either for personal or political use, and the victims were left high and dry; and forced to fend for themselves which left them in pathetic conditions, where they are forced to be exploited in multi dimensional ways. It is one of the reasons where the common masses feel disgusted against the flag bearers of Aazadi, as they can’t relate their miseries and conditions to them. APDP with its little means tries to cater to the needs of the families of disappeared souls. Parveena holds that only mothers know the agony of losing a son, hence mothers have to be in the forefront in the struggle for Justice.

Armed insurgency which now has lost its momentum as a result of which women now are regaining their public space back once again, and are even on the forefront of the protests that have rocked Kashmir Valley for last three consecutive years since 2008. Women are also active in the Peace and Reconciliation efforts too, though these initiatives are still an elite venture.

Thus conflict made women of Kashmir to acquire new roles, and with it came its own set of problems and responsibilities and women have proved to be oceans of sacrifice and courage and with a smiling face they are delivering what these roles demand from them. But there is a flipside of the conflict which is having an adverse effect on women and has made them more vulnerable to various evils and their rights are violated with impunity.

The incidents of Domestic violence have gone up due to the impact of conflict, as the men folk are being daily humiliated by the army and police bruising their self esteem and crushing their self confidence, who in turn to want to regain and assert their authority, stature, status and manliness against women hence coerce them to submission. They avenge their humiliation from their womenfolk, which even in many cases has resulted in death.

The women related to militants and Pro-Freedom voices suffer from governmental and State apathy, hostility and hate at every step of their lives, and those related to renegades or counter insurgents from Social apathy, as they are declared as Social outcastes, and their women and children have to face a host of problems.

Families, whose bread earners have been killed, find women trying hard to keep the family together, often neglecting their own health. The financial constraints drive them from pillar to post and cultural impediments and social norms don’t even permit some of them to beg.

Previously it was the father, brother, husband or son who used to provide security to his daughter, sister, wife or mother but given the situation prevalent in Kashmir the roles have been reversed. The wo
men shoulder their men when they are encountered with a calamity, though social norms inhibit women visiting Police Stations, army camps and torture centers, but the situation demands so and in the process they get a bad name label.

Child marriage is becoming rampant in the heavily militarized areas, so as to escape rape and molestation by the army. The drop out rate of girls from schools is also on rise, in order to escape the routine taunts and harassment by the army enroute to school. Some girls have been even forced to marry certain people of influence through coercion by Police and counterinsurgents and in case of resistance; either the girl has been raped or killed. There has been no survey about the exact number of rapes committed against the Kashmiri women but in a survey conducted by Medicans San Frontiers(Doctors Without Borders) an International NGO in 2006 on “Kashmir: Violence and Health”, 11.6 percent of interviewees said they had been victims of sexual violence since 1989. Almost two thirds of the people interviewed (63.9 percent) by MSF had heard about cases of rape during the same period. The study revealed that Kashmiri women were among the worst sufferers of sexual violence in the world. The figure is much higher than that of Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Chechnya and Ingushetia. Many teenage girls are now going for counseling in order to cope the rising psychological impact of the atrocities on women perpetuated by army and police. The suicide rate among women of Kashmir is on rise and the ramifications of conflict have contributed to its steep increase among women.

The women of Kashmir have been dragged to flesh trade, and they are exploited in this process as they are offered money sometimes but most of times denied. The lower rung Special Police Officers(SPO)s are even a part of this vicious circle, who would marry a girl, then sell her to others or make her to visit their higher officers for sexual favors. These women forced in the flesh trade are even used as mukhbirs(spies) or even coerced to drag other girls in their net, thus the vicious circle continued and the girls had no escape from the same. Luring the poor girls for jobs and then sexually exploiting them, came to the forefront on a large scale in the form of VIP Sex Scandal 2006 in which high rank police officials, top bureaucrats and politicians were involved in sexploitation of the young local girls, all of whom were educated, some even with bachelors and masters degree, though most of then were not poor, but they needed jobs for attaining social status. In Kashmir it now has become difficult for young unemployed girls to find a suitable groom, as the marriage market demands the girl to be employed, and more the high paying job, more are the chances of having a similarly high status groom, this trend is making the girls run helter skelter for jobs and in the process fall in the trap of sex exploiters, who in this case happened to be men of Power.

The sexploitation of women in Kashmir still continues unabated, and now there are many clear signals that Kashmiri girls are even trafficked to other states for prostitution, and sooner or later this brutal fact will too dawn on the people of Kashmir.

The recent population census of 2011 has brought to fore various shocking facts about women of Kashmir, of which the drastic decline in the female sex ratio will have serious ramifications in the future, though some leaders have even advised the men to turn gay, but we must try to find the real roots of this decline, as the Sex ratio has dropped from 906 per thousand males in 2001 to 883 in 2011, as the decadal census proved. One of the reasons for this drastic fall is the vulnerability of women via the presence of army in Kashmir who ravage their chastity with impunity, hence numerous incidents of rape and molestations by the army and zero percent persecution of the culprits has reinforced the belief of parents that they can’t afford the liability of a girl child. Other reasons like Dowry, patriarchal hostility towards girl child, unemployment and a host of other issues too contribute to the brutal female feticide, which is continuing unabated, despite dire warnings in the Quran against such inhuman, uncivilized, brutish, nasty and savage practice. Also many girls have been left unclaimed in hospitals by their parents, giving rise to another issue of catering to these infants, which mostly are adopted and if not the orphanages, special homes have no arrangement for the same. The Social & Child rights workers encounter serious challenges while addressing this new problem.

Women of Kashmir even in 21st century suffer from scores of problems and issues in this corner of the world, where women still have numerous inhibitions and are far from empowered. Women of Kashmir have adopted and acquired new roles that conflict imposed and demanded from them, but the perpetual denial of Justice, failure to bestow equal rights on them, structural prejudices prevalent in society against them, absence of institutions which will cater to their needs, marginalization of their dissent, suppression of their voices and turning a blind eye towards their sacrifices and contribution has obviously led to their souls being bruised, vision blurred, physique burdened, courage undermined, voices chocked but despite all these hurdles they play a significant part in holding the family and society together. They have always proven to be an inspiration for men to continue their struggle against occupation and atrocities. Every conflict brings in its wake new roles for women, and in most cases women comply with the same, same has happened in Kashmir too, but these roles have both Positive as well negative implications depending on the manner, means and degree of exposure to the conflict and its impact on the lives of women.

What more new roles or disastrous implications conflict will have on women of Kashmir in future, only time will tell!!

Mushtaq Ul Haq Ahmad Sikander is Writer-Activist based in Srinagar, Kashmir and can be reached at sikandarmushtaq@gmail.com

Exposition « Guerre et Paix » à Monaco

Source : Guerre et Paix

« Cette exposition est dédiée à ces femmes extraordinaires qui ont accepté d’être photographiées. J’espère que leur témoignage contribuera à mettre un visage sur toutes celles qui continuent à souffrir en silence. » Nick Danziger

Les films documentaires et les photographies de Nick Danziger ont reçu de nombreuses distinctions comme le Prix Italia pour le meilleur film documentaire de l’année et le World Press Award pour un « portrait miroir » de George Bush et Tony Blair alors qu’ils s’entendent sur le déclenchement du conflit en Iraq en 2003. Ses photographies font maintenant partie de nombreuses collections de musées à travers le monde.

Il y a dix ans, Nick Danziger exposait dans plusieurs pays les images de onze femmes ou jeunes filles meurtries par la guerre, qu’il avait réalisées à la demande du Comité international de la Croix Rouge.

Dix années plus tard, Nick Danziger est parti à leur recherche. Qu’étaient-elles devenues ?

Grâce à la mobilisation des antennes locales du Mouvement Croix-Rouge et d’autres organisations internationales, il a retrouvé la trace de ces femmes et les a re-photographiées dans leur quotidien d’aujourd’hui. Pour certaines, la situation a peu évolué tandis que d’autres se reconstruisent et mènent à présent une vie normale, loin des turpitudes qu’elles ont dû subir.

L’exposition « GUERRE ET PAIX, Femmes dans le XXIème siècle » permet de découvrir les photographies de ces onze femmes que Nick Danziger a suivi au cours de ces dix dernières années mais présente également d’autres photographies de ce photographe sur le thème de la femme victime de conflits.

« Nick Danziger est un homme polyvalent. Il abandonne une prometteuse carrière de peintre pour voyager et devient auteur de best sellers dans les années 1980. Son premier livre, Danziger’s Travels, est toujours en vente aujourd’hui. Dans les années 1990, ses films, réalisés pour la BBC et d’autres grandes chaînes internationales remportent des prix. Pendant toute cette période, Nick prend des photos, à titre d’illustration et de souvenirs, dans un premier temps, puis dans le cadre de la réalisation de ses films et enfin, depuis dix ans, essentiellement en tant que photojournaliste et documentariste.

Tous ces mots, s’ils décrivent les activités de Nick, ne le définissent pas pour autant. Nick Danziger est avant tout un voyageur, un conteur d’histoires et un explorateur de lieux et de situations que la plupart d’entre nous n’oseraient pas approcher. Il est un citoyen du monde contemporain, à travers le regard duquel nous pouvons commencer à comprendre le monde qui nous entoure.

Sa passion du voyage est liée à son immense fascination pour les gens. Au cours de toutes ces années passées à travailler avec lui, j’ai appris à ne pas m’étonner du profond respect et de l’affection qu’ont pour lui ses collègues et les personnes qu’il côtoie lors de ses reportages : du personnage politique et de son conseiller en communication, au chauffeur de taxi et au concierge d’hôtel, tous sont pris par son charme et l’intérêt véritable qu’il manifeste envers eux et envers leurs vies.

Le drame que vivent les gens en temps de guerre, de famine, ou de troubles civils, peut être extrêmement dur, mais Nick sait que leur histoire ne s’arrête pas là. Dans cette rétrospective, Nick n’est pas uniquement un grand photographe mais il est un homme qui se préoccupe assez des personnes pour revenir. Il retourne encore et encore dans les pays touchés par les conflits pour suivre et voir comment a évolué la vie des gens, parfois en bien, mais pas toujours.

Bien souvent, en temps de guerre et de conflits, c’est l’histoire de la vie des femmes qui révèle la véritable ampleur de l’horreur. Ce sont leurs histoires de force et de stoïcisme qui peuvent inspirer et émouvoir le monde et l’amener à agir. En racontant ces histoires, nous espérons que cette œuvre saura vous toucher et vous inspirer. »

Neil Burgess. Commissaire de l’exposition.

Neil Burgess a une longue carrière de conservateur, rédacteur, et écrivain dans le domaine de la photographie. Il débute dans  les « arts publics » et dirige pendant de nombreuses années la Galerie Open Eye à Liverpool avant de fonder et diriger le Bureau londonien de Magnum Photos. Après une période en tant que directeur de la société mère de Magnum à New York il crée sa propre société *nbpictures, qui lui permet de présenter le travail d’un certain nombre d’artistes et photographes. Il est l’éditeur de Nick Danziger depuis près de dix ans. Marié et père de quatre enfants, il vit à Londres.

Du 7 au 30 septembre 2011
Tous les jours de 13h à 19h, fermé le lundi
Entrée libre
Salle d’exposition du quai Antoine Ier
4, quai Antoine Ier
98000 MONACO

Direction des Affaires Culturelles
Tel : +377 98 98 83 03
Renseignements : danziger@monaco.mc ou www.nickdanziger.com

© Nick Danziger 

Circulation et coercition. Mobilités contraintes et captivité de guerre (XVIe-XXe siècles)

Colloque international

Colegio de España – Cité Universitaire de Paris

7 bd. Jourdan, 75014 Paris

15-16 septembre 2011

Organisation :

Renaud Morieux (IRHIS-Université de Lille III)

Jesus College, Cambridge)

Jean-Paul Zúñiga (CRH-EHESS)

PROGRAMME

Jeudi 15 septembre 2011

9h30. Arrivée des participants.

9h45. Introduction. Renaud Morieux (Université de Lille III / University of Cambridge), Jean-Paul Zúñiga (EHESS)

1. Les frontières des statuts : galériens, captifs, prisonniers de guerre

Présidente : Sylvie Aprile (IRHIS-Université de Lille III)

10h-10h30.Gillian Weiss (Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland), Port City Slavery : Turks and Moors on France’s Galleys during the early modern period

10h30-11h.Romain Bertrand (CERI-Sciences Po Paris), Captivité militaire, conversion politique et conversations religieuses dans une « zone-contact » (Aceh, Sumatra, 1580-1610)

11h-11h15.Pause

11h15-11h45. Sylvie Thénault (Centre d’Histoire Sociale du 20e siècle – CNRS), Une circulation transméditerranéenne forcée : l’envoi de prisonniers algériens en France au 19e siècle

11h45-12h05. Discutante : Miranda Spieler (University of Arizona)

12h05-12h45. Discussion générale.

13h-14h30. Déjeuner.

 2. De la réclusion à la mobilité : exils, bannissements et déportations

 Présidente : Marie-Vic Ozouf-Marignier (EHESS) [sous réserve]

14h30-15h. Clément Thibaut (Université de Nantes), Captivité et recrutement forcé dans le cadre des crimes de lèse-majesté et lèse-patrie en Nouvelle-Grenade et au Venezuela, 1790-1830

15h-15h30. Clare Anderson (University of Leicester), Convicts in the Indian Ocean (late 18th-mid 20th c.)

15h30-15h45. Pause.

15h30-16h. Alain Blum (EHESS), Marta Craveri (EHESS), Déportés en ou vers l’Union soviétique (1930-1953) : la multiplicité des statuts et des parcours

16h-16h20. Discutante : Nancy Green (CRH-EHESS).

16h20-17h. Discussion générale.

Vendredi 16 septembre 2011

3. Les économies de la contrainte

Présidente :  Annick Lempérière (Université Paris I)

10h15-10h45. Antonio de Almeida Mendes (Université de Nantes), Razzias, déplacements, travail contraint et travail libre dans l’Atlantique nord : Maroc, Cap Vert , Europe occidentale ( 15e-16e siècles)

10h45-11h15. José Javier Ruiz Ibáñez (Universidad de Murcia) et Ana Diaz (Universidad de Murcia), Captifs et rançons dans les guerres de la deuxième moitié du 16e siècle en Europe occidentale.

11h15-11h30. Pause

11h30-11h20. Discutant : Philippe Minard (Université Paris VIII / EHESS).

11h20-12h. Discussion générale.

12h15-14h. Déjeuner.

4. Le contrôle des corps : encadrement et agency

Président : Florent Brayard (CRH- CNRS)

14h-14h30. Ann Stoler (New School for Social Research, New York), The Colony as a Political Concept: Containments and Imperial Formations

14h30-15h. Pieter Lagrou (FNRS, Bruxelles), Faire prisonnier, se faire prisonnier. De la non-mise à mort dans la guerre totale à l’époque contemporaine

15h-15h30. Pause

15h30-15h50. Discutante : Megan Vaughan (University of Cambridge)

15h50-16h30. Discussion générale.

16h30-17h30. Table ronde

Contacts : Jean-Paul.Zuniga@ehess.fr; renaudmorieux@gmail.com

 

Femmes et guerres : une approche transnationale

« Femmes et guerres : une approche transnationale »

Colloque International

Université Hoa Sen

Du 17 au 20 octobre 2011

Programme prévisionnel

17/10/11 – Matin

Thème : Méthodologie de recherche dans le domaine « femmes et guerres »

1/ Françoise Thébaud: Femmes, genre et guerres :une large historiographie

2/ BùiTrân Phượng: Recherche sur le thème «femmes et guerres» au Vietnam, une nouvelle approche

3/ Cynthia Enloe: What Do We All Learn About Wars by Taking Women’s Lives Seriously?

4/ PhạmQuốc Lộc: Les femmes dans la tradition et dans la guerre: identité et performatif de genre

17/10/11 – Après-Midi

Projection du film « Quand viendra le dixième mois ». Rencontre avec Dang Nhat Minh, réalisateur du film. Discussion sur la solitude de la femme dans la guerre.

17/10/11 – Soir

Vernissage de l’exposition de peinture sur les femmes dans la guerre

18/10/11 – Matin

Thème: Trajectoire des femmes dans la guerre

1/ Lê Thi: Le rôle des femmes dans la guerre au Vietnam – Les filles volontaires des brigades de choc

2/ Marguerite Rollinde: Femmes palestiniennes en lutte : la voix des femmes de Gaza

3/ Hồ Việt Đoàn: La générale Nguyễn Thị Định et l’armée aux cheveux longs

4/ François Rouquet : La guerrière à l’écran

Atelier 1

1/ Nguyễn Thị Hiển Linh: La vie et les activités des détenues politiques dans les

prisons au Sud VN

2/ Ngô Thị Phương Thiện: Mme Ngo Ba Thanh – Woman Architect of Peace

Atelier 2

1/ John K.Swensson: American Women’s Participation in the Viet Nam Conflict

2/ Yenny Narny: Violence against women in the Communist Tragedy in West Sumatra 1965/1966

Atelier 3

1/ Vatthana Pholsena: Les femmes des minotités ethniques et la guerre – Le cas du Laos

2/ Trầm Hương: – Les filles de brigades de choc dans le Sud

18/10/11 – Après-Midi

Projection du film “Regret to inform” par Barbara Sonneborn

19/10/11 – Matin

Thème: Femmes et après-guerre

1/ CGFED: Conséquences de la guerre chimique au Vietnam sur les femmes, la famille et la société

2/ FabriceVirgili: Les enfants de l’ennemi

3/ Jane Freedman: Vivre après les violences… Les expériences des femmes en République Démocratique du Congo

Atelier 1

1/ Lê Thị Kim Lan: Les femmes, les enfants et l’agent orange

2/ Masako Tanaka: Seeking Justice: Struggles of Sexual Violence Survivors in Post Conflict Nepal

Atelier 2

1/ Bửu Ý: Femmes et guerres dans la musique de Trinh Cong Son

2/ Thái Phan Vàng Anh: La guerre porte la figure de femme dans la prose d’après-guerre.

3/ Lê Thị Hường: La voix féministe dans la prose de guerre des femmes de lettres

Atelier 3

1/ UHS: Mémoire des mères de combattants morts dans la guerre

2/ François Guillemot: Perceptions et voix féminines de la guerre du Vietnam

20/10/11 – Matin

Visite du Musée des Femmes du Sud, exposition- Rencontre avec des anciennes détenues politiques et femmes volontaires de brigades de choc…